The HUD Code

Just as site built homes are constructed according to a specific building code to ensure proper design and safety, today’s manufactured homes are constructed in accordance with the HUD Code. The United States Congress laid the foundation for the HUD Code in the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974, which was enacted because of three inter-related reasons:

  • The interstate shipment of homes from the plant to the retailer to the home site meant that the manufacturer – prior to the advent of the HUD Code – ordinarily did not know in advance which code would apply;
  • States were not able to effectively and uniformly regulate manufactured home construction and safety issues; and
  • Congress wished to preserve access to affordable housing for middle and lower income families.

In its legislation, Congress directed the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to establish appropriate manufactured home construction and safety standards that “…meet the highest standards of protection, taking into account existing state and local laws relating to manufactured home safety and construction.”

Every HUD Code manufactured home is built in a factory, under controlled conditions, and has a special label affixed on the exterior of the home indicating that the home has been designed, constructed, tested and inspected to comply with the stringent federal standards set forth in the code. No manufactured home may be shipped from the factory unless it complies with the HUD Code and is released for shipment by an independent third party inspector certified by HUD.

The HUD Code is unique since it is specifically designed for compatibility with the factory production process. Performance standards for heating, plumbing, air conditioning, thermal and electrical systems are set in the code. In addition, performance requirements are established for structural design, construction, fire safety, energy efficiency, and transportation from the factory to the customer’s home site. Manufactured homes are constructed with virtually the same materials used in site-built homes. However, in contrast to traditional site-building techniques, manufactured homes have the advantage of using engineered design applications and the most cost-efficient assembly-line techniques to produce a quality home at a much lower cost per square foot. To ensure quality, the design and construction of the home is monitored by both HUD and its monitoring contractor. The familiar red seal (the certification label) attached to the exterior of a manufactured home indicates that it has undergone and passed perhaps the most thorough inspection process in the home building industry.

Two Major Categories

There are two primary classifications for factory-built homes: manufactured and modular. What distinguishes these homes is the adherence to specific codes or regulations during their construction process. Each aspect of these homes is governed by the building code, dictating their requirements and standards.

In the case of site-built homes, local codes enforcement officials oversee the approval of plans and conduct inspections to ensure compliance with the New York state building code.

Manufactured Homes

Are built according to a national standard set by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Although it is a national code, adjustments are made to accommodate regional climate conditions.

Similar to modular homes, all aspects of production for HUD-code homes must be documented and approved before commencement. This approval is carried out by a third-party professional.

Subsequently, a different third-party inspector inspects the homes during production to ensure compliance with quality control measures and HUD code standards. Once satisfied, the HUD certification is attached to the home.

Modular Homes

Adhere to the same standards as mandated by the New York state building code. Prior to commencing production, a state architect or engineer reviews proposed plans and quality control measures, including personnel involved in the factory’s quality control program, to guarantee compliance with state building code standards.

During production, an independent third-party inspector, not affiliated with the manufacturer, oversees the implementation of pre-established plans and controls. Upon completion, a New York state insignia is affixed to the home.